Sri Brahma emanates the male and female species
Lord Brahma created lightning, thunder, clouds, the seven skies and the rainbow. All this creation took place when the Sanat Kumar brothers rejected their father Brahma’s plea in the creation process and decided to remain as eternal celibates for the sake of performing devotional service towards the Supreme Lord. Then Sri Brahma conceived the Pitrs, the ancestors and forefathers of mankind. Then he conceived the four Vedas namely Rik, Yajus, Sama and Atharva. Sri Brahma wondered, how long he himself will handle the creation process. Now it was time to empower the living beings with the ability to procreate. Sri Brahma then emanated from his body, the two species of male and female. Shatarupa emerged from him, the mother of the female species. Then King Swayambhu Manu, the first-born son of Sri Brahma was married to Shatarupa.
The Sun follows the Dhruva Mandala
Manu and Shatarupa begot two sons named Priyabrata and Uttanapada. Uttanapada’s son was Maharaja Dhruva. The great sage Atri adopted Maharaja Dhruva as his son. Dhruva had attained the Supreme Love of Godhead and the Lord awarded him a galaxy which is known as the Dhruva Mandala. Facing the Dhruva Mandala, the sun travels North and this heralds the auspicious time of Uttarayana. When the sun travels south, following the movement of the Dhruva Mandala, Dakshinayana begins.
King Vena and King Prithu
In the lineage of Dhruva Maharaja there was a certain king named Anga. He was married to Sunitha. Their son was known as Vena. Vena had all demoniac qualities. He was envious of the Brahmana class. He also hated the Vedic Scriptures. He would detest Yajna and would not allow the conduct of Yajna in the kingdom. He was extremely hateful against the devotees. However he had a very pious and Dharmika son known as Prithu. The whole earth was like a daughter to King Prithu and hence out of the father-daughter relationship of Mother earth and King Prithu, the earth came to be known as Prithvi ( पृथ्वी daughter of Prithu).
The demons known as Madhu and Kaitabha
Mother earth has many other names like Medhini, Vasundhara, Bhumi etc. She got the name Vasundhara because she gave rise to celestial beings, very elevated in their spiritual positions known as Vasus who are 8 in number. Earth was full of Medi (मेदि fat). This was because when the Lord incarnated in His form as Hayagriva, His body was full of fat or Medi. Two big blobs of His body fat fell on the Earth and from there emerged two demons named Madhu and Kaitabha. They spread terror on the entire planet and since the two symbols of fat or Medi was widespread, Earth received her name as Medhini. The Lord Hayagriva then slayed the two demons Madhu and Kaitabha.
The birth of Daksha Prajapati
King Prithu was not the begotten son of Vena. Following the death of King Vena, the sages and the mystics ordered for the churning of King Vena’s body. First, his right hand was churned. From there emerged a dark being known as Nishada. This clan was then popularly known as the Nishada clan, who inhabit the tribal regions of Bharat. At the time of churning Vena’s left arm, King Prithu appeared. King Prithu was the partial incarnation of the Supreme Personality of Godhead. In the same clan of Dhruva Maharaja, there appeared a king known as Prachinabarhis. King Prachinabarhis after marriage, begot 10 elevated sons who are jointly known as Prachetas. The Prachetas had performed severe austerities throughout the country on seats made of Kusha grass. Since there was nobody else to take care of the kingdom, the whole kingdom was covered with forest. Trees grew all over the place. This was because the Prachetas had undergone austerities for over 10,000 years at a stretch and not focused on the kingdom. When they learnt about the trees having taken over their kingdom, they abandoned their pursuit and opened their mouths which let out gusts of wind and fire. This burnt down all the overgrown trees that covered their kingdom. The trees then started praying to the Prachetas. They advised the Prachetas to accept a daughter from them, which they would give birth to. They promised that an elevated being will be born out of the marriage of the Prachetas and their daughter. The daughter of the woods was known as Marisha. She was married to the Prachetas and she begot a son who was the chief of the progenitors known as Daksha Prajapati.
The Curse on Moon-God
Daksha Prajapati had 60 daughters. Ten daughters were given in marriage to Yama Dharma Raja. Yama is the son of Sun God Surya. Yama’s sister is the great river Yamuna Devi. 13 daughters were married of to Kashyapa Muni. 27 daughters were married off to Chandra Deva, the Moon. The 27 daughters are the 27 auspicious stars which are so important in astrology. The Moon was interested only in one wife known as Rohini. This matter came to the notice of Daksha Prajapati. He cursed the Moon to become diseased. The Moon then prepared to go to a place called Thiruindalur on the banks of the river Kaveri. The presiding deity of this place is the Parimala Ranganathan form of the Supreme Lord. “Indu” means the Moon and Thiruindalur is the place where the Lord (Thiru) put an end to the curse of “Indu” or the Moon. “Oor” in Tamil means place.
What is the chronology of Daksha during his incarnation?
Now, as Janamejaya was listening to the Hari Vamsha from his preceptor Vaisampayana, he enquired “The Daksha that you are talking about has come many generations below the Grandsire of the universe Sri Brahma. I have heard of Daksha to be the direct son of Brahma, born out of his right thumb. Are these two personalities the same? Kindly clear my doubt.” To this, the preceptor of Janamejaya said “The cycles of the 4 Yugas namely Satya, Treta, Dwapara and Kali happen a 1000 times in a day of Brahma and Manu appears 14 times in that cycle. It is to be understood that many of the characters who appear in one Manvantara repeat their births in forthcoming cycles of a day in Brahma’s life. Hence Daksha has appeared many times during the course of 1000 cycles of the 4 Yugas. It should be understood that although Daksha is the same, the chronology of his appearance may differ and his ancestry may differ according to a certain Manvantara.”
When did Sri Krishna appear?
One may also observe that it is mentioned in the Shrimad Bhagavatham that Prahalad Maharaja prayed to Sri Krishna. Now one may wonder that Lord Narasimhadeva appeared at an earlier time in Satyuga compared to the birth of Lord Krishna who appeared in Dwapara Yuga, at a much later time. How is it that Lord Krishna’s name is being mentioned in Satyuga? The answer to this question is that, the many cycles of the 4 Yugas have seen the repetition of all incarnations of the Lord. Hence in a cyclic occurrence, one can never say which the first incarnation is and which a later incarnation is, with respect to time chronology. The word Krishna also means the most attractive form. It is an epithet that is used in the Sanskrit language to denote God.