What is Bhakti, Dhyana and Upasana Yoga?

What is Bhakti and Upasana Yoga

What is Bhakti?

Bhakti means to be obedient. It also means to serve and to satisfy. But this does not mean that Bhakti can be rendered to anyone and everyone. Bhakti does not mean that our heart should melt for someone on the material platform with a material body. Serving, satisfying and being obedient to such people cannot qualify as Bhakti. Only when this obedience and the sense of service is extended to the Supreme Lord can it be qualified as Bhakti.

The word Bhakti is usually associated with the Supreme Lord, in His incarnation as Lord Krishna. In the Bhagavad Gita, the Lord states only Krishna (or any form of Vishnu) Bhakti can guarantee Liberation or Mukti.

What are Mrityu and Amrutam?

The Upanishads have their own viewpoint about Bhakti. There is a repetition of a word, Vedanam (वेदनम) in the Upanishads. This means Knowledge. This Knowledge refers to the knowledge of Brahman alone. It is the knower of Brahman. Knowledge about Brahman is a necessary condition for liberation. To cross the ocean of nescience, Samsara (समसारा the world), Brahma Jnana (ब्रह्म ज्ञान knowledge of Brahman) is necessary. For Mukti or liberation, Brahma Jnana is a necessity.

Pain has two forms at both ends of life. If one is born, there is pain and when one dies there is pain. This pain is cyclic in nature, because life and death alternate with every life. This material world is directly linked to Mrityu (मृत्यु) or death. While, the attainment of Vaikuntha, Bhagavan’s eternal abode, frees one from Mrityu and grants Amrutam (अमृतम nectar or immortality). Amrutam is also seen as the diametrically opposite of Mrityu or death. Escaping from death is also to escape from Samsara, Maya or the world. That which is lost, is the world and the loved object, the Lord and His Abode, Vaikuntha is gained.

What is the Nature of Dhyanam?

However understanding Brahman or just attaining knowledge about Brahman is not a sufficient condition for Liberation. Knowledge about Brahman is a necessary and yet not a sufficient condition for attaining Liberation. The second necessary condition is Dhyanam (ध्यानम to mull over). In addition to knowing about Brahman one needs to contemplate about Brahman.

For example one may know a certain gentleman by name, address and form. But, one may not remember the introduced person with clarity after a few months. One may rack one’s memory because one has not often thought about that person repeatedly. Hence, although a person is known, he is not remembered. Thus to recognize a person instantly, one has to know a person and remember the person so that he may be recognized in a crowd. The contemplation is the aspect of Dhyanam.

Hence the Brahman (also stands for the Lord), has to be contemplated or remembered with intent. This is also a necessary condition for Liberation.

How should we remember Bhagavan?

Dhyanam is a necessary condition. However Dhyanam is also not a sufficient condition for Liberation. We may remember a person by mulling over him for some time. But if we leave our habit of contemplating upon him, the trace is lost and we may still forget the person, in a few years time. Same is the case with Brahman.

The next stage of Dhyanam is Nidhidhyasanam (निधिध्यासनम) which means contemplation without break, continuously. The contemplation should be such that there are no breaks in the contemplation. The contemplation should flow on the mind’s screen like oil drops in a flow from one vessel to another.

The Brihadaranyaka Upanishad says that one should hear about Brahman, from an authorized source. Then one should practice remembering the stories of the Lord. The Lord’s stories are not a figment of imagination but the very essence of Truth. The remembering should be without breaks in thoughts and the process is prolonged ever after experiencing Bhagavan.

The final stage of Nidhidhyasanam is Darshanam (दर्शनम) which means one shall finally meet the Lord, be face to face with Him. This is the claim of the Upanishads.

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What is Upasana Yoga?

The question arises as to how long should one conduct Nidhidhyasanam? The Upanishads claim, even after one comes face to face and with the Lord (Darshanam), Nidhidhyasanam continues. Nidhidhyasanam becomes the very characteristic of the soul. When it becomes so much a part of our being, how can one rid oneself of Nidhidhyasanam after attaining Bhagavan? It is not possible.

Bhakti and Upasana

The entire chain of Vedanam, Dhyanam, Nidhidhyasanam and Darshanam is known as Upasanam. This Upasanam itself is Bhakti, its true form. Thus the Upasanam of the Vedanta is same as Bhakti Yoga. There is no difference. All forms of spiritual practice appear difficult if we consider them as duty, if we consider them as discipline. However, if we perform the practices out of attachment and love for the process, the very practices will transform themselves into spiritual love.

What is Anudhyanam?

Another terminology that Sri Ramanujacharya introduces about Bhakti is Anudhyanam, an extension of Dhyanam.  Anudhyanam means to stick with complete attachment to the process of Bhakti.

It is to be considered as a vehicle being stuck to another vehicle which is leading the way. The second vehicle is simply depending on the first vehicle. The first vehicle is completely being followed by the second vehicle which is sticking to the body of the first vehicle. In Anudhyanam, the second thought is stuck to the first thought, fully emulating the first thought of Bhakti. Thus a train or bogey of thoughts follow each other, where all of those thoughts are an exact repetition of the first thought of Bhakti. This is Anudhyanam.

That means there should be no gap between two thoughts. Every single thought should be part of a continuous trail of Bhakti thought, remembrance of God.

Greatness of Sanatana Dharma

There are two components for interest in Bhakti.

1) One will hear about Bhakti only if one desires.

2) One will remember the Lord after hearing about Him, only if one desires.

Both these processes cannot be forced from the outside. None of these can be forced. If one remembers the Lord accidently, a few times a day as part of the regular train of thoughts, cannot qualify itself for Bhakti or Upasanam. However, if an individual attends Satsanga through free-will and remembers the Lord through applied will, the Upanishads come to that individual’s aid, so as to direct him in the right manner.

Only if the Scriptures are followed in the right manner, can one qualify for liberation or Moksha. The greatness about Sanatana Dharma is that, it does not force anyone into any practice. The option is completely with the living entity whether to follow the Dharma or not. Dharma comes to help only after the living entity has made up his mind to abide by Dharma, not before that. 

Sanatana Dharma and Man-made religions

The talk of other man-made religions is that all people, good and bad come together and then after coming together, one prepares to become good. Sanatana Dharma is based on Satsanga. Individuals comes together under one roof after making the decision of becoming good. Satsanga happens in an association of noble souls. Hence the difference between the approaches of man-made religion and Sanatana Dharma is phenomenal. Coming together and devising means to become good through man-made books is diametrically opposite to the approach of Santana Dharma. In Sanatana dharma, people come together out of goodness and then undertake time-tested processes and Satsanga.

The results of both these approaches are beyond any comparison. One needs to understand the definition of Satsanga. Is Satsanga, the conglomeration of good people, guided by an enlightened sage? Or does it mean a handful of misdirected people who are still deciding to locate Truth. Sanatana Dharma demands being first established in one’s nuclear family. Then only should one attempt to take it outside the four walls of a household. This is the methodology of the Dharma. It cannot be called Dharma, where, in a crowd, people talk about Truth, high principles and morals. After dispersal, they continues to behave and do as their mind pleases. This is the drawback of man-made religious structures.

Basis of Sanatana Dharma

Other man-made religions are based out of communities and groups, however Sanatana Dharma focuses only on transformation of individuals. It demands individual transformations alone. In Sanatana Dharma, transformation of individuals alone is the goal. If individuals get serious about transformation, then there shall be no need to transform society. On the other hand if one gets concerned about groups and communities, only hypocrisy shall prevail.

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